OpenSSL

Verify Public Cert, Private Key, CSR

openssl x509 -noout -text -in server.crt
openssl rsa -noout -text -in server.key
openssl req -text -noout -verify -in server.csr

Verify if a cert and key are pairs

openssl x509 -noout -modulus -in server.pem | openssl md5 ;\
openssl rsa -noout -modulus -in server.key | openssl md5

Convert .cer to .pem

openssl x509 -inform der -in certificate.cer -out certificate.pem

Connect and verify

openssl s_client -verify -showcerts \
-connect remote-hostname.com:443 -msg \
-CAfile allca.cer -cert myhostname.cer -key myhostname.key
echo | \
openssl s_client  -connect remote-hostname.com:443 2>/dev/null | \
openssl x509 -text

Generate a CSR

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -out myhostname.csr -config myopenssl.cnf

For this a config file is needed. Fill it up with details like this:

######################################################################################
[ req ]
default_bits = 2048
default_md = sha256
default_keyfile = myhostname.pem
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
prompt = no
req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request
[ req_distinguished_name ]
C=IN
ST=Karnataka
L=Bangalore
O=None
OU=None
CN=arunsr.in
[ v3_req ]
subjectAltName = @alternate_names
keyUsage = digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
[ alternate_names ]
DNS.1 = www.arunsr.in
DNS.2 = blog.arunsr.in
#######################################################################################

Cipher regex check

If you're setting a regex to block or enable certain ciphers, here's a quick way to verify what it expands to:

$ openssl ciphers -V 'RC4-SHA:HIGH:!ADH'
RC4-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA:AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA:AES128-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:DES-CBC3-MD5

$ openssl ciphers -V 'ALL:!aNULL:!ADH:!eNULL:!MEDIUM:!LOW!EXP:RC4+RSA:+HIGH'
DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA:AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA:AES128-SHA:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA:DES-CBC3-SHA:DES-CBC3-MD5

Convert between private key formats

Some private keys have 'BEGIN PRIVATE KEY' (NEW, PKCS8) and others have 'BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY' (OLD, PKCS1). Here's how to convert between them:

Newer versions of OpenSSL say BEGIN PRIVATE KEY because they contain the private key + an OID that identifies the key type (this is known as PKCS8 format). To get the old style key (known as either PKCS1 or traditional OpenSSL format) you can do this:

openssl rsa -in server.key -out server_new.key

Alternately, if you have a PKCS1 key and want PKCS8:

openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -nocrypt -in privkey.pem

(from https://stackoverflow.com/questions/17733536/how-to-convert-a-private-key-to-an-rsa-private-key)

Remove a passphrase from a private key

openssl rsa -in privateKey.pem -out newPrivateKey.pem

Create a self signed certificate and key

This is done as -

openssl genrsa -out privkey.pem 1024
openssl req -new -x509 -key privkey.pem -out cacert.pem -days 1095